<pre id="0g16a"></pre>
      <table id="0g16a"><ruby id="0g16a"></ruby></table>

      <track id="0g16a"><ruby id="0g16a"></ruby></track>

      <p id="0g16a"></p>

      <p id="0g16a"><label id="0g16a"><menu id="0g16a"></menu></label></p>

    1.  

      - Art Gallery -

       

      .

      Spine
      End papers
      Frontispiece
      Colophon

      Note from the Editor of the Electronic version.

      The maps of the Classical Atlas have been scanned at a sufficient resolution to enable easy reading, but they may not display at an appropriate scale, depending on screen size, resolution, and window size; we recommend you use software that allows zooming to view them.

      The numbers of the maps given in the Index pages are the same as those in the list in the main body of the Atlas, allowing cross-reference.

      Note that the Latitude and Longitude given in the Index pages are from Greenwich, while the maps, as common with many of the times, have grids with Longitudes given both from Greenwich and Ferro. If you use the latter you won't find your target.



      INTRODUCTION

      THE accompanying Atlas has been included in this series for the greater convenience of the reader of “Grote's Greece” and other works that ask a continual reference to maps of ancient and classical geography. The disadvantage of having to turn perpetually from the text of a volume to a map at its end, or a few pages away, is often enough to prevent the effective use of the one in elucidating the other. Despite some slight variations of spelling in the classical place-names used by different authors, there need be no difficulty in adapting the same Atlas to various works, whether they are English versions of historians like Herodotus or Livy, or English histories of the ancient world, such as Grote's and Gibbon's. Taking the case of Grote, he preferred, as we know, the use of the “K” in Greek names to the usual equivalent “C,” and he retained other special forms of certain words. A comparative list of a few typical names which appear both in the index to his “History of Greece” in this series, and in the index to the present Atlas, will show that the variation between the two is regular and, fairly uniform and easy to remember:


      GROTE'S spelling  CLASSICAL ATLAS      GROTE'S SPELLING   CLASSICAL ATLAS
      
      Adrumetum         Hadrumetum           Hydra              Hydrea
      ?gean             ?g?an                Iasus              Iassus
      Akanthus          Acanthus             Kabala             Cabalia
      Akarnania         Acarnania            Nile               Nilus
      Akesines          Acesines             Olympieion         Olympieum
      Aktê              Acte                 Oneium             ?neum
      Ch?roneia         Ch?ronea             Paliké             Palica
      Dekeleia          Decelea              Pattala            Patala
      Dyrrachium        Dyrrhachium          Peir?um            Pir?um
      Eetioneia         Eetionea             Phyle              Phyl?
      Egypt             ?gyptus              Pisa               Pis?
      Eresus            Eressus              Pylus              Pylos
      Erytheia          Erythia              Thessaly           Thessalia
      Helus             Helos                Thrace             Thracia
      

      By comparing in the same way the place-names in Gibbon's and other histories, the reader will need no glossarist in using the Atlas to lighten their geographical allusions. It is not only when he comes to actual wars, campaigns and sieges that he will find a working chart of advantage. When he reads in Grote of the Ionic colonization of Asia Minor, and wishes to relate the later view of its complex process to the much simpler account given by Herodotus, he gains equally by having a map of the region before him.

      We realize how Grote himself worked over his topographical notes, eking out his own observations with map, scale and compass, when we read his preliminary survey of Greece, in the second volume of his history. “Greece proper lies between the 36th and 40th parallels of north latitude and between the 21st and 26th degrees of east longitude. Its greatest length, from Mount Olympus to Cape T?narus, may be stated at 250 English miles; its greatest breadth, from the western coast of Akarnania to Marathon in Attica, at 180 miles; and the distance eastward from Ambrakia across Pindus to the Magnesian mountain Homolê and the mouth of the Peneius is about 120 miles. Altogether its area is somewhat less than that of Portugal.” But as to the exact limits of Greece proper, he points out that these limits seem not to have been very precisely defined even among the Greeks themselves.

      The chain called Olympus and the Cambunian mountains, ranging east and west and commencing with the ?gean Sea or the Gulf of Therma near the fortieth degree of north latitude, Grote continues, “is prolonged under the name of Mount Lingon until it touches the Adriatic at the Akrokeraunian promontory. The country south of this chain comprehended all that in ancient times was regarded as Greece or Hellas proper, but it also comprehended something more. Hellas proper (or continuous Hellas, to use the language of Skylax and Dik?archus) was understood to begin with the town and Gulf of Ambrakia : from thence northward to the Akrokeraunian promontory lay the land called by the Greeks Epirus — occupied by the Chaonians, Molossians, and Thesprotians, who were termed Epirots and were not esteemed to belong to the Hellenic aggregate.”

      Beside this survey of Hellas proper or continuous Hellas, as Grote presented it, he set the word-map of Italy that Gibbon draws — Italy changing its face under the Roman civilization: “Before the Roman conquest, the country which is now called Lombardy was not considered as a part of Italy. It had been occupied by a powerful colony of Gauls, who, settling themselves along the banks of the Po, from Piedmont to Romagna, carried their arms and diffused their name from the Alps to the Apennine. The Ligurians dwelt on the rocky coast, which now forms the republic of Genoa. Venice was yet unborn; but the territories of that state, which lie to the east of the Adige, were habited by the Venetians. The middle part of the peninsula, that now composes the duchy of Tuscany and the ecclesiastical state, was the ancient seat of the Etruscans and Umbrians; to the former of whom Italy was indebted for the first rudiments of a civilized life. The Tiber rolled at the foot of the seven hills of Rome, and the country of the Sabines, the Latins, and the Volsci, from that river to the frontiers of Naples, was the theatre of her infant victories. On that celebrated ground the first consuls deserved triumphs, their successors adorned villas, and their posterity have erected convents. Capua and Campania possessed the immediate territory of Naples; the rest of the kingdom was inhabited by many warlike nations, the Marsi, the Samnites, the Apulians, and the Lucanians; and the sea-coasts had been covered by the flourishing colonies of the Greeks. We may remark, that when Augustus divided Italy into eleven regions, the little province of Istria was annexed to that seat of Roman sovereignty."

      As we see by this topical extract, Gibbon's practice in the use of Latin place-names is very much freer than Grote's in the use of the Greek. A few comparative instances from the Atlas will suffice:


      Gibbon's spelling   Classical Atlas     Gibbon's spelling    Classical Atlas
      
      Antioch             Antiochia           Naples               Neapolis prius
      Apennines           Apenninus                                      Parthenope
      Dardenellcs         Hellespontus        Osrhoene             Osroene
      Ctesiphon           Ctesipon            Thrace               Thracia
      Egypt               ?gyptus             Ostia                Ostia
      Gau1                Gaula               Cordova              Corduba
      Genoa               Genua
      

      Among other works which the present Atlas will help to illustrate, editions of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," and of Merivale's Roman History which leads up to it, are already in preparation; it is hoped to publish in the series also an edition of Herodotus, the father of the recorders of history and geography, who realized almost as well as did Freeman the application of the two records, one to another. The good service of the Classical Atlas, however is not defined by any possible extension of Everyman's Library. The maps of Palestine in the time of our Lord and under the older Jewish dispensation, of Africa and of Egypt, and that, now newly added, of the Migrations of the Barbarians, and the full index, give it the value of a gazetteer in brief of the ancient world, well adapted to come into the general use of schools where an inexpensive work of the kind in compact form has long been needed.

      The present Atlas has the advantage of being the result of the successive labour of many hands. Its original author was Dr. Samuel Butler, sometime head-master of Shrewsbury school and afterwards Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. He edited Aeschylus, and was in his way a famous geographer. The work was at a later date twice revised, and its maps were re-drawn, under the editorship of his son. It has now been again revised and enlarged to suit the special needs of this series.


      LIST OF MAPS

      1. ORBIS VETERIBUS NOTUS
      2. BRITTANNIA
      3. HISPANIA
      4. GALLIA
      5. GERMANIA
      6. VINDELICIA, RH?TIA, NORICUM, PANNONIA, ET ILLYRICUM
      7. ITAL? PARS SEPTENTRIONALIS
      8. ITAL? PARS MEDIA
      9. ITAL? PARS MERIDIONALIS
      10. MACEDONIA, M?SIA, THRACIA ET DACIA
      11. GR?CIA EXTRA PELOPONNESUM
      12. PELOPONNESUS ET GR?CIA MERIDIONALIS
      13. INSUL? MARIS ?G?I
      14. ASIA MINOR
      15. ORIENS
      16. SYRIA, MESOPOTAMIA, ASSYRIA, ETC.
      17. PALESTINA, TEMPORIBUS JUDICUM ET REGUM
      18. PALESTINA, CHRISTI ET APOSTOLORUM EJUS TEMPORIBUS
      19. ARMENIA, COLCHIS, IBERIA, ALBANIA, ETC.
      20. AFRICA ANTIQUA
      21. AFRICA SEPTENTRIONALIS
      22. ?GYPTUS
      23. ROMA ET VICINIA ROMA
      24. ATHEN? ET SYRACUS?
      25. ORBIS HERODOTI
      26. ORBIS PTOLEM?I
      27. MIGRATIONS OF THE BARBARIANS

      Index to the Classical Atlas

      Abac?num to Acimincum Iolcos to Lactodorum
      Acinasis, Fl. to ?giale Lactura to Leusaba
      ?gialus to Aliso Leusinum to Macomada Syrtium
      Alisontia, Fl. to Angitula, Fl. Macomades to Mastusia, Pr.
      Angli to Aqu? Neri Masulibium Horrea to Methora
      Aqu? Originis to Ariolica Methydrium to Naharvali
      Ariolica to Atlas Montes Naharvali, L. to Noviodunum
      Atr? to Bandrobrica Noviodunum to Orcynius Saltus
      Bandusi?, Fons to Bythinia Ordessus vel Ardiscus, Fl. to Paran, Desert of
      Bythinium to C?c Metell?, Sep. Paran vel Faran to Pharnacotus, Fl.
      C?ciliana to Carasa Pharpar, R. to Platanistus, Pr.
      Caravis to Celenderis Platanodes, Pr. to Purpurari?, I
      Celetrum to Chrysas, Fl. Putea Nigra to Rubricatus, Fl.
      Chrysopolis to Combretonium Rucantii to Sanetio
      Combria to Criss?us Sinus Sanig? to Segusio
      Crithote, Pr. to Deba Segustero to Sinnus, Fl.
      Debeltus to Duria Minor, Fl. Sinonia, I. to Suinas, Fl.
      Durius, Fl. to Eristum Suindinum to Taxila
      Erite to Forum Egurrorum Taygetus, M. to Thuria
      Forum Fulvii vel Valentinum to Germanicus Oceanus Thuria to Tricornium
      Geronthr? to Helicea Tricrana, I. to Uscosium
      Helicon, M. to Horrea C?lia Uscudama to Viminacium
      Horrea Publica to Inui Castrum Viminalis, M. to Zyrin?

      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      				
      
      				
      
      				
      
      				

      
      				
      
      				
      
      
      
      				
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      				
      
      				
      
      				
      
      				

      Hellenica World

      Index


      久久免费国产版,欧美第9页浮力影院,亚洲中文久久精品字幕,久久久久国产小成本电影