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      Parts : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7

      Greek Literature Resources

      Dear friends, it has been granted to me to write in a language that is spoken only by a few million people. But a language spoken without interruption, with very few differences, throughout more than two thousand five hundred years. This apparently surprising spatial – temporal distance is found in the cultural dimensions of my country. Its spatial area is one of the smallest; but its temporal extension is infinite. Odysseas Elytis, Nobel Prize Speech

      1976, 500 years since the first greek printed book " Επιτομ? των oκτ? του λ?γου μερ?ν" (Summary of the Eight Parts of Speech) by Constantine Lascaris (1434-1501) printed by Dionysius Paravisinus in Milan

      Greece has the most rich literature history, around 2800 years ( Alphabetic script adapted from Phoenician 800 – 750 BC? ) with only China and India probably having a similar (but less known worldwide) record. Compared to the development of ancient Greek literature from Homer and the golden ages to the Hellenistic period and even during the occupation of Greece by the Romans there was no real significant progress of Greek literature (if we ignore the work of historians, or the poems about the heroic Vasilios Digenis Akritas) during the 1000 years period of “Byzantium”, a religious dominated society. Mainly theological or technical writings were produced. For more details see: The History of Byzantine Literature: from Justinian to the end of the Eastern Roman Empire (527 – 1453. Erotocritos in Crete (16 – 17th century ) was one of the first pieces of "modern“ Greek literature (Venetian influence). A large part of Greece in the period 1453 – 1821 was occupied by Turks. A few years before the war of independence we have the first real works of modern Greek literature in the Ionian islands from Greeks (Solomos, Kalvos) who lived outside the occupied region. A Problem for modern Greek literature is that only less than 20 millions worldwide speak Greek. Kazantzakis and Cavafy are probably the most known Greek authors together with Samarakis, Ritsos, Elytis and Seferis. Films like Zorba the Greek made Kazantzakis known worldwide including also the music of Theodorakis. Important for the international success is the translation in English, French, German, Spanish and other languages and in the last years the number of books translated has increased.

      Νεοελληνικ? Λογοτεχν?α - Σ?γχρονοι ?λληνε? συγγραφε??

      Apokopos, Bergadis 1509

      Bergadis (Μπεργαδ??), Crete , 1509 editio princeps of the Apokopos, the first modern Greek work to appear in print, Example in Greek from Apokopos

      (Some other early authors: Georgios Choumnos, Leonardos Dellaportas, Marinos Falieros, Andreas Sklentzas : )

      Οι ?N?οι Eλληνε?? γενν?θηκαν το 1675

      Erotokritos, Antonio Bortoli edition, 1713

      Vitsentzos Kornaros (Βιτσ?ντζο? Κορν?ρο?) (26.3.1553 Trapezounta – Siteia – 1613 ), Erotokritos (Ερωτ?κριτο?), The sacrifice of Abraham (Η Θυσ?α του Αβρα?μ)

      Markos Antonios Foscolos (M?ρκο? Aντ?νιο? Φ?σκολο?) (Handakas 1597? – 1660) Example in Greek

      Adamantions Korais and Rigas Feraios help Greece, Theophilos Hadjimichail

      Adamantios Korais (Αδαμ?ντιο? Κορα??)(27.4.1748 Smyrni – 6.4.1833 Paris) son of a merchant in Amsterdam. He tried to rouse the enthusiasm of the Greeks for the idea that they were the true descendants of the ancient Hellenes by teaching them to regard as their own inheritance the great works of antiquity. Letters written from Paris (Library of Korais in Chios with many rare collections of books and documents ). He was very critical in his letters and publications with the orthodox church who dominated the life of the Greeks under the Ottoman regime. The Orthodox church (with some exceptions) was not very enthusiastic with an idea of a revolution and an independent Greece. “Μ?σα απ? ...το πλο?σιο συγγραφικ? ?ργο του Αδαμ?ντιου Κορα?, ασκ?θηκε ?ντονη και συνολικ? κριτικ? για την αν?μειξη του ιερατε?ου στα πολιτικ? πρ?γματα, τον τρ?πο αναπαραγωγ?? του, τη διαγωγ? και το μορφωτικ? του επ?πεδο, καθ?? και για τον τρ?πο λειτουργ?α? των πολυ?ριθμων μοναστηρι?ν. Η αντ?δραση του Πατριαρχε?ου εν?ντια στα επαναστατικ? ιδεολογικ? και πολιτικ? προτ?γματα των διαφωτιστ?ν και κυρ?ω? του Αδαμ?ντιου Κορα?, εντ?θηκε κατ? τα πρ?τα ?τη του 19ου αι?να, για να κορυφωθε? με τι? αφοριστικ?? εγκυκλ?ου? εν?ντια στην ?ναρξη τη? Επαν?σταση? στη Μολδοβλαχ?α και στην κυρ?ω? Ελλ?δα” (PDF File in Greek) Biography in Greek, Σ?λπισμα Πολεμιστ?ριον , Παρ?ρτημα: Ο Νεοελληνικ?? Διαφωτισμ??

      Antonios Martelaos (1754 – 1819)

      A Stamp with an inscription of Rigas Feraios: Whoever thinks freely, thinks well, from Physikes Apanthisma (A Handbook of Physics), 1790. National Historical Museum, Athens

      Rigas Velestinlis Feraios (or Pherraios) (Antonios Kyriazis) (Ρ?γα? Φερρα?ο?) (1757 (estimated year) Velestino/Thessalia – 24. 6. 1798 killed by the Turks in a prison in Belgrade ) A national hero, “It is better to live free for one hour, than forty years of slavery and bondageThourios το ιερ?τερον ?σμα τη? φυλ?? μα? (Γ. Τερτσ?τη?) (Greek Text) (Info Greek) Rigas Velestinlis: An Anthology of Physics, 1790 , C. M. Woodhouse: Rhigas Velestinlis: The Proto-Martyr of the Greek Revolution. Denise Harvey Publications, Mai 1995,

      Yiannis Vilaras (Γι?νη? Βηλαρ?? )(1771 Kythera – 1823 Tsepelovo) (Info in Greek)

      Athanasios Christopoulos (Aθαν?σιο? Χριστ?πουλο? )(1772 Kastoria – 1847 Romania) poet who worked in Romania, Examples in Greek

      Ugo Foscolo (Niccolo Foscolo)(Ο?γο? Φ?σκολο?) (26.1.1778 Zakynthos – 10.10.1827 Turnham Green ), Italian father, Greek mother, influenced Italian literature and politics (independence), The Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis , Info

      Heptanesian School (Επτανησιακ? σχολ?)

      Konstantinos Asopios (1785/90 - 1872)

      Andreas Ioannidis Kalvos ( Ανδρ?α? Κ?λβο? ) (? April 1792 Zakynthos – 3.11.1869 Louth/England), "the poet without a portrait", a romantic poet, Italian Neoclassic influence (Examples in Greek) Ελπ?? Πατρ?δο? , O Filopatris , Images

      Antonios Matesis (1794 – 1875)

      Yannis Makriyannis (Ioannis Triantafyllodimitris) (Γι?ννη? Μακρυγι?ννη?/ Ιω?ννη? Τριανταφυλλοδημ?τρη?) 1797 – 27.4.1864) The Memoirs of General Makriyannis , Γι?ργο? Σεφ?ρη?: ?να? ?λληνα? - ο Μακρυγι?ννη?

      Dionysios Solomos with his famous: "Is there anything in my mind but liberty and language?"

      Spyridon Trikoupis to Solomos during a meeting in Zakynthos. "Your talent as a poet will you provide a good place in the Italian Parnassus, but the most important places are occupied. The Greek Parnassus does not have his Dante"

      "I don't know well Greek", replied Solomos, "How can I write well?"

      Dionysios Solomos (Διον?σιο? Σολωμ??) (1798
      Zakynthos– 9/21.2.1857 Kerkyra (Corfu)), He lived in Corfu in a house which later was destroyed by the Germans during the Second World War. The house was restored and is now the Solomos Museum (Corfu) , Eleutheroi Poliorkimenoi ("Free Besieged", Greek ) Solomos: Le sue poesie in lingua italiana. Solomos Stamps, Ο θ?νατο? του Διονυσ?ου Σολωμο?, Text of Greek National Anthem (Hymn to freedom 158 verses (written all in May 1823) ! The longest anthem according to The Guiness Book of World Records,

      The Greek national anthem AU Format (377K) ) :

      Σε γνωρ?ζω απ? την κ?ψη του σπαθιο? την τρομερ?,
      Σε γνωρ?ζω απ? την ?ψη που με β?α μετρ?ει τη γη.

      Απ’ τα κ?καλα βγαλμ?νη των Ελλ?νων τα ιερ?,
      Και σαν πρ?τα ανδρειωμ?νη, χα?ρε, ω χα?ρε, Ελευθερ?α

      The 158 verses in Greek

      I recognize you by the dredged edge of your sword,
      I know you by your countenance which instantly measures the world.

      You were created from the sacred bones of Greeks,
      Valiant heros as of old. Hail, Hail to Liberty!

      Elisabet Moutzan-Martinegkou (Ελισ?βετ Μουτζ?ν-Μαρτιν?γκου) (1801-1832)

      Georgios Tertsetis (Γε?ργιο? Τερτσ?τη? ) (1800 Zakynthos – 1880 Athens), Examples in Greek

      First Athenian School (Α' Αθηνα?κ? Σχολ?)

      Alexandros Soutsos (Αλ?ξανδρο? Σο?τσο?)(1803-1868)

      Alexandros Rizos Rangavis, (Αλ?ξανδρο? Ρ?ζο? Ραγκαβ?? )(1810 Constantinople – 1892 Athens) author and politician, an ambassador in Washington, USA. Η ταξιδε?τρια

      Andreas Laskaratos (Ανδρ?α? Λασκαρ?το?) (1811 Lixouri/ Kefalonia – 1901 ) satirical author Μυστ?ρια τη? Κεφαλονι?? provoked often the church (he was excommunicated) and the society with his critical work.

      Aristotelis Valaoritis (Αριστοτ?λη? Βαλαωρ?τη?) (1.9 1824 Lefkas – 24.7.1879) poet, lawyer, politician ( Example in Greek: Samuel ) (Info in Greek) Examples in Greek

      Iakovos Polylas (Ι?κωβο? Πολυλ??)(1825 Corfu – 1896), student and friend of Solomos.

      Gerasimos Markoras (Γερ?σιμο? Μαρκορ??)(1826-1911), Corfu

      Dimitrios Vernardakis (Δημ?τριο? Βερναρδ?κη?)(b. 1833), author, professor of history

      Parts : 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7

      Modern Greek Literature

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